How am I preparing for data collection?

This is the part I have been waiting for!! I have my reading sheets pulled and labeled by week. I have my probes ready to go. All of my protocols are done and ready to go. I have a fellow teacher that is going to help me the first week by taking a few of my students for a hour so I can administer my baseline assessments on Monday morning, and utilize the Six-Minute Solution and graphing which I think will take more than 10 minutes the first day.

I had our education coach pick my baseline assessments, and a second-grade teacher pick my probes, so it is all completely random. I have made my student journals made, and have printed my observation checklists.

My class is ready to start this, they are excited to be part of it, and we are treating it like it’s a big deal. I feel good now, and ready.

Reflection WK 6

I feel a lot better now, I have a good plan, my classmates helped me see some things that I can improve on.

Ashley made a good point, check attendance, those with terrible attendance; do not include them in the study. The students need to be there everyday, or the program will not work. That is going to be my biggest challenge! Another good point was sample size. I should reduce it to the students that have great attendance. A smaller sample size will give me better data points, but it will not help all the students in the class.

I think I could have everyone do the program, but only use the data from the students selected. The pre and post surveys will be a benefit whether I use the student’s data or not.  I am feeling better about this after reading the other blogs, and talking to Ashley. Lets make this happen!!

How will data collection ‘look’ for me? What challenges am I anticipating?

I will be using The Six-Minute Solution, and the reading probes from Read Naturally, Levels 1.0 – 2.5. The students will graph daily results on The Six-Minute Solution graph sheet. Along with the graphing sheet, students will journal how they feel about their reading, and the score they received. The R-CBM and MAZE Passages will be chosen at random from a selection of twenty-five each and administered each Friday between 11:00 AM and 11:30 AM.   There will be a pre and post research survey for the students to provide feedback on the process.

In this test, I want to examine possible benefits of repeated readings and a single reading on an AIMSweb test. If we work daily on fluency, and comprehension at the end of the week, I believe the students will be able to translate that skill into process for everyday reading. The students will be given a baseline R-CBM and MAZE test at the beginning of the study. Everyday the students will read from the Read Naturally probes, on Friday the students will be given a R-CBM and MAZE fluency test. The results will be graphed weekly and compared to previous weeks and the baseline. Daily when the students read, after the reading is graphed, they will journal how they feel about their reading and the score they cut. This will allow them to see their improvement, loss or flat reading each day.

The only challenges I see are the kids that have a hard time making it to school.  When they do not come, they don’t get the practice and sometimes testing can be off set.  Other than that, I see it going pretty smooth.

Framework / Justification and Research Question

My research question is can The Six-Minute Solution help improve student scores on the AIMSweb R-CBM and MAZE tests. The literature revealed two main themes, repeated readings improved fluency and in some cases it also improved comprehension. Student fluency is needed to improve R-CBM and MAZE scores. The programs used in the studies all follow the same strategy. These strategies if used correctly have been shown to improve fluency and also improve comprehension. I want to test these same systems on a group of students that have such low fluency and comprehension scores. I feel that this program can help improve student reading, the fluency in which they read, and the understanding of the material they read.

The goal of this study is to see if students can benefit from repeated readings on a weekly administered probe. The goal is to see improvement weekly with an ultimate goal of bringing the students from falling far below to approaching standards in a four-week period.

Reflection to WK 5

I am happy with my choices so far.  Kerri is following the same type of study but with younger students.  Her choices look a lot like mine, no pre-survey, but a post to question the way the kids feel about it.  We both also want to use god quality CBM material.  I am going to stick with my original plan, use the Six-Minute Solution, the material that comes with it, except the probes, which I will use Read Naturally because of the comprehension questions on the back.  I am satisfied with where I am at so far, and feel, based on what I have read from my peers, we are all in the same boat. 

What methods that I learned about in the research literature can I use to collect data? What new methods will I need to design?

The methods used in the research vary between two programs. The first program is just repeated readings. Repeated readings are great for students with disabilities, there is no set foundation, it is just reading to gain fluency. The actual “Six Minute Solution” is reading for one minute to improve fluency, and at the end of the week testing comprehension is the goal. I will follow the plan of The Six Minute Solution, where repeated reading and then discussions followed by Comprehension is the goal for improvement. All the data I have found says that support during reading (letting the reader know what the errors are) helps improve the future readings, and the comprehension.

I do not need to reinvent the wheel. I will use the materials provided by the program, and the graphing sheets as well. I will however create a questioner for use after the data collection to see how the students feel about the program and how they feel they did with it. My research will follow Amy Hanzal’s in using the Six Minute Solution to improve AIMSweb Scores on R-CBM and MAZE.

Another good research paper is Drop Everything and Read, where the author Jan Hasbrouck says that the old adage of read to self is not the best use of reading time for kids that are not yet fluent. For kids to be successful they need to receive feedback after a set amount of time. This again falls in line with the program I want to use. Al of the research I have found so far, all falls in line with letting the reader getting feedback after a read to help improve their fluency going forward.

Hanzal, A. (2013). Closing the Reading Fluency Gap in Six Minutes.

Hasbrouck, J. (2006). Drop everything and read—but how. American Educator, 30, 22-31.

Reflection to WK 5

I am happy with my choices so far. Kerri is following the same type of study but with younger students. Her choices look a lot like mine, no pre-survey, but a post to question the way the kids feel about it. We both also want to use god quality CBM material. I am going to stick with my original plan, use the Six-Minute Solution, the material that comes with it, except the probes, which I will use Read Naturally because of the comprehension questions on the back. I am satisfied with where I am at so far, and feel, based on what I have read from my peers, we are all in the same boat.

Reflection to Week 4, How have I contributed to others learning and how have they impacted mine.

Kerri is doing a research project that is similar and has allowed me to think about what I have chosen to do. I feel confident about my research, and about what I have read on the other blogs. I have had a lot of interest in The Six Minute Solution, and am happy I could provide information for others looking for a tool to improve fluency and comprehension.  The Six Minute Solution is a program that should be started in 1st grade and used throughout elementary. The research I found all points to a win for the students, and there is nothing that says you can only do it once a day.  Two of the articles I read both said that The Six Minute Solution was a fluency program, but comprehension should not be overlooked. I feel I have a program to help close the gap that I have which is pretty big right now.  I don’t know if I was really able to provide any help to my peers, I would like to think so. I do know that I have had a lot of inspiration from my peers, I have enjoyed reading their material, and there are some things I will steal for later. I know that working together even though we are all not on the same path gives us ideas to use as we work through the process.

What patterns or themes are evident in the research I read? How do these themes inform my project and/or the projects of others in this PLN?

The constant pattern I found was that The Six Minute Solution was beneficial for struggling students needing improved fluency. The one benefit of the program was that it improved comprehension as well, but is not a leading part of the program. Stated in The Effects of Repeated readings and Attentional Cues on Reading Fluency and Comprehension, the authors state “the effects on comprehension should not be considered as only a secondary purpose for using this methodology” (O’Shea et al., 1985). The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities also states that children in the tier 2 & 3 groupings show improved scores on the AIMSweb R-CBM test.

These common themes are important for my project because the goal is to increase R-CBM and MAZE scores on the AIMSweb. Fluency is important for both of these tests, however Comprehension is needed to answer the questions on the MAZE. Because this test is like a cloze reading, the students must be able to fluently read fast and choose the correct word (in a choice of three) to make the sentence correct. If the student doesn’t understand what they read, a wrong choice makes no difference. In Closing the Reading Fluency gap in Six Minutes, Hanzel states “Reading fluency is an issue beginning in first grade and continuing…for readers who seem to lack fluency struggle through all reading” (Hanzel, 2013).

I feel that all the articles I found, read and reviewed, seemed to move toward the same conclusion. I know that from the practice we have done in the classroom, the students love the program, and look forward to it. I have sampled some of the material and have seen improvement based on student graphs and list created.

John’s Literature Review

Literature Review

 Reading fluency is defined as an accurate, rapid and expressive reading by the National Reading Panel (National Reading Panel, 2000). Reading fluency and comprehension is an issue that begins in first grade and continues through our lives as readers (Hanzal, 2013). As we practice our skills increase and we become more fluent in our reading moving from one word at a time to chunks of words all the way up to a sentence. As we read our ability to identify common or sight words allows us to move through a passage and truly focus on words that are strange or unknown. We use cues in the sentence to identify the unknown words make the comprehension connection. When struggling readers read one word at a time, the fluency and comprehension is lost in the reading.

Students that need to stop and sound out sight word lose the flow of the passage. Research shows that implementing the Six Minute Solution to children with disabilities, improved the reading fluency over time (Wexler, Vaughn, Roberts, Denton, 2010). Students without disabilities also benefited from the use of the program as fluency and comprehension increased. The National research Center on Learning Disabilities helps schools understand, design, and evaluate response to intervention programs for struggling students in the Tier 3 level of learning (Johnson, Mellard, Fuchs, McKnight, 2006).

Several research projects conducted using the Six Minute Solution to improve fluency and comprehension all achieved their goal of increasing fluency, and understanding of the topic read. The goal of the program is to begin reading a list of sight words at one-minute intervals. Each reading is graphed as to the correct number read. After five readings the graphs are used to show improved readings over time. From the sight words the reader moves on to a rich passage with 130 to 150 words. The same process is used, one-minute reading followed by graphing the amount of words read. After the fifth read, the student is allowed to read the entire passage and answer comprehension questions on the back. The authors found that both fluency and comprehension increased as the students increased the number of readings (O’Shea, O’Shea, Sindelar 1985). Research also found that when students read a passage for the first time after using the Six Minute Solution, the reader spent less time rereading sentences and more time focusing on the unknown words (Wexler, Vaughn, Roberts, Denton, 2010).

The ability to collect data from each student and each reading, allows a classroom teacher to properly level students in a three-tier system (Hanzel, 2013). This allows the teacher to implement other opportunities of reading practice for the tier two and three students that struggle with fluency and comprehension.

Data proves that the repeated readings practice improves words read per minute, understanding of passage read, and increased AIMSweb scores (Hanzel, 2013). All of this translates into a struggling reader becoming more fluent over time with extensive practice.

References

Hanzal, A. (2012-13). Closing the Reading Fluency Gap in Six Minutes. Retrieved from http://sophia.stkate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=maed

Hasbrouck, J. (2010). Developing Fluent Readers. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/developing-fluent-readers

Johnson, E., Mellard, D. F., Fuchs, D. & McKnight, M. A. (2006). Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI): How to Do It. Washington, DC. National Research Center on Learning Disabilities

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Reports of the subgroups. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health

O’Shea, D.J., O’Shea, L.J., & Sindelar, P.T. (1985). The Effects of Repeated readings and Attentional Cues on Reading Fluency and Comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, Volume XVII (No.2), 129-142.

Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Denton, C.A. (2010). The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(1), 2-10.

John Orsborn’s Annotated Bibliography

Hanzal, A. (2012-13). Closing the Reading Fluency Gap in Six Minutes. Retrieved from   http://sophia.stkate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=maed

This Masters paper is a study based on third and fourth grade students struggling with fluency and comprehension. This paper was retrieved online using Google Scholar, and searching keywords “fluency” and “six Minute solution”. The study is based on AIMSweb scores in Bismarck, ND, takes place over a one-year period, and reveals student data at the end of the data collection in the form of graphs. The study was based on low student scores and a need to increase reading fluency scores in order to get kids to grade level fluency. While the data is collected monthly and logged on a bar graph, we can see a growth from baseline to end of year advancements. This is a great starting point for the same type of study. The author does a good job of showing fluency scores based on AIMSweb MAZE and R-CBM tests that schools use for leveling students in a three tier system.

Hasbrouck, J. (2010). Developing Fluent Readers. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/developing-fluent-readers

This online article is about what fluency should look like, and what teachers can do to help students whose fluency is far behind their peers. The section I am concerned with is improving struggling readers’ fluency: Suggestions for intervention. It provides the basic directions for six-minute fluency practice with the cold read, followed by the continuous reads, and finally the hot read. The article goes into detail about the WCPM score, the goal setting and the comprehension questions. The article goes on to cover the data from a select group of third grade students in the lower 25th percentile that moved well above in one year’s time.

Johnson, E., Mellard, D. F., Fuchs, D. & McKnight, M. A. (2006). Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI): How to Do It. Washington, DC. National Research Center on Learning Disabilities

The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (Lawrence, KS) prepared this manual as a tool for implementing Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI). The manual can help schools understand, design, and evaluate the RTI features that they will implement. This RTI Manual is based on current research regarding the features of RTI. While striving to present comprehensive coverage of the critical features of RTI, it also includes numerous resources for pursuing further information. RTI is defined as an assessment and intervention process for systematically monitoring student progress and making decisions about the need for instructional modifications or increasingly intensified services using progress-monitoring data. I am only focusing on Section 2, progress monitoring, because I am in the RTI stage already. This manual gives me a better understanding of what I need to do to work with the tier 2 and 3 children to improve fluency and AimsWeb scores. The Manual discusses Progress monitoring which is currently done at the two and four week stage monthly. The authors discuss using AimsWeb as a formative assessment tool to provide continues student performance data for the classroom teacher to view fluency scores.

O’Shea, D.J., O’Shea, L.J., & Sindelar, P.T. (1985). The Effects of Repeated readings and Attentional Cues on Reading Fluency and Comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, Volume XVII (No.2), 129-142.

This scholarly journal article covers the study of the effects of repeated readings and attentional cues on measure of reading fluency and comprehension. The study takes thirty third graders and has them read separate passages one, three, and seven times following cues to attend to either reading rate or meaning. Following the reading, the students had to retell the passage they just read after the final reading. Fluency and portions of the story propositions retold were analyzed for comprehension. The authors found that both fluency and comprehension increased as the number of repeated readings increased. In addition, readers cued to fluency read faster with each passage introduced. The results of this study provide clarification of the effects of repeated reading on both fluency and comprehension. Most importantly, the effects on comprehension should not be considered as only a secondary purpose for using this methodology.

Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Denton, C.A. (2010). The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(1), 2-10.

This scholarly journal article is an experimental study based on high school children with reading disabilities. However the text talks about the main component of six-minute fluency, which is, increased fluency coupled with speed and accuracy. The authors talk about the observed relationship between fluency and comprehension, and engaging the reader in reading practice. The authors discuss the importance of implementing repeated reading practice with elementary children for improved reading scores, and fluency.  While the study did not produce improved findings on children with severe disabilities, the program worked on regular struggling readers.