John Orsborn’s Annotated Bibliography

Hanzal, A. (2012-13). Closing the Reading Fluency Gap in Six Minutes. Retrieved from

This Masters paper is a study based on third and fourth grade students struggling with fluency and comprehension. This paper was retrieved online using Google Scholar, and searching keywords “fluency” and “six Minute solution”. The study is based on AIMSweb scores in Bismarck, ND, takes place over a one-year period, and reveals student data at the end of the data collection in the form of graphs. The study was based on low student scores and a need to increase reading fluency scores in order to get kids to grade level fluency. While the data is collected monthly and logged on a bar graph, we can see a growth from baseline to end of year advancements. This is a great starting point for the same type of study. The author does a good job of showing fluency scores based on AIMSweb MAZE and R-CBM tests that schools use for leveling students in a three tier system.

Hasbrouck, J. (2010). Developing Fluent Readers. Retrieved from

This online article is about what fluency should look like, and what teachers can do to help students whose fluency is far behind their peers. The section I am concerned with is improving struggling readers’ fluency: Suggestions for intervention. It provides the basic directions for six-minute fluency practice with the cold read, followed by the continuous reads, and finally the hot read. The article goes into detail about the WCPM score, the goal setting and the comprehension questions. The article goes on to cover the data from a select group of third grade students in the lower 25th percentile that moved well above in one year’s time.

Johnson, E., Mellard, D. F., Fuchs, D. & McKnight, M. A. (2006). Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI): How to Do It. Washington, DC. National Research Center on Learning Disabilities

The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (Lawrence, KS) prepared this manual as a tool for implementing Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI). The manual can help schools understand, design, and evaluate the RTI features that they will implement. This RTI Manual is based on current research regarding the features of RTI. While striving to present comprehensive coverage of the critical features of RTI, it also includes numerous resources for pursuing further information. RTI is defined as an assessment and intervention process for systematically monitoring student progress and making decisions about the need for instructional modifications or increasingly intensified services using progress-monitoring data. I am only focusing on Section 2, progress monitoring, because I am in the RTI stage already. This manual gives me a better understanding of what I need to do to work with the tier 2 and 3 children to improve fluency and AimsWeb scores. The Manual discusses Progress monitoring which is currently done at the two and four week stage monthly. The authors discuss using AimsWeb as a formative assessment tool to provide continues student performance data for the classroom teacher to view fluency scores.

O’Shea, D.J., O’Shea, L.J., & Sindelar, P.T. (1985). The Effects of Repeated readings and Attentional Cues on Reading Fluency and Comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, Volume XVII (No.2), 129-142.

This scholarly journal article covers the study of the effects of repeated readings and attentional cues on measure of reading fluency and comprehension. The study takes thirty third graders and has them read separate passages one, three, and seven times following cues to attend to either reading rate or meaning. Following the reading, the students had to retell the passage they just read after the final reading. Fluency and portions of the story propositions retold were analyzed for comprehension. The authors found that both fluency and comprehension increased as the number of repeated readings increased. In addition, readers cued to fluency read faster with each passage introduced. The results of this study provide clarification of the effects of repeated reading on both fluency and comprehension. Most importantly, the effects on comprehension should not be considered as only a secondary purpose for using this methodology.

Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Denton, C.A. (2010). The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(1), 2-10.

This scholarly journal article is an experimental study based on high school children with reading disabilities. However the text talks about the main component of six-minute fluency, which is, increased fluency coupled with speed and accuracy. The authors talk about the observed relationship between fluency and comprehension, and engaging the reader in reading practice. The authors discuss the importance of implementing repeated reading practice with elementary children for improved reading scores, and fluency.  While the study did not produce improved findings on children with severe disabilities, the program worked on regular struggling readers.



  1. ahayden2007 · February 1, 2015

    It sounds like the means to your goal of increased fluency is to increase the amount of repeated readings based on the articles you referenced. I’m curious how you define fluency for the purpose of this study. Are you just hoping to have students decode at a faster rate or are you concerned with other aspects like expression and ? Since my study is focused on comprehension skills, it is difficult to not be negative towards what you’re really hoping to accomplish. Do you just want fast readers or are you hoping to give them life skills? Not sure what your methods are for your research project, but I have found a kid-friendly rubric to be helpful for students to know what is expected of fluent readers. Perhaps implementing that into your methods might help to yield positive results. While doing a quick search for the rubric I came across this paper that might be of some use–although I’m not sure it is peer reviewed–but you could check out the references they listed:,d.cGU


  2. jnyboy1131 · February 2, 2015

    Thanks for the feed back. I am trying to increase fluency to improve AIMSWeb (RCBM & MAZE) scores. The district I work in bases everything on and I mean everything on test data. The students I have in third grade are reading at an average of first grade. They have no fluency skills, do not know second grade sight words, and can not comprehend what they read on a third grade test. The six-minute solution is a fluency builder that teaches them phonetic elements of sight word vocabulary and the ability to read text fluently with comprehension.


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